"In this report, we summarize the contemporary history of efforts to improve Ph.D. education in the United States with an eye to the future. This survey of major reform efforts of the last quarter century makes evident a consensus stretching, sometimes surprisingly, across the arts and sciences. Such a consensus deserves consideration in formulating any new agenda. But in assessing why recent reforms were not more readily adopted by doctoral programs, we also hope to present lessons for more effective means to achieve the goals of that consensus. The report is organized in three parts, by a history of recent national efforts, then by a crosscutting of past and current reforms organized by topic, and finally by a small number of fundamental recommendations for future action."